Chapter 5:- Mahatma Gandhi and the National Movement (ICSE)

Q.1. State two methods of Political Struggle evolved by Mahatma Gandhi as part of the National movement?
Ans. Two methods of Political Struggle evolved by Mahatma Gandhi as part of the National movement are as follows:-
  1. Satyagraha
  2. Ahimsa (non-violence)
  3. Swadeshi
  4. Involving common people.

Q.2. What was Khilafat Movement ?

Ans. Khilafat Movement  :-

  1. The Caliph of Turkey lost all territories inhabited by people other than Turks.
  2. The Sultan was deprived of real authority Over such territories and this angered the Muslims in India.
  3. A Khilafat Committee was formed to campaign for the cause of the Caliph of Turkey by the Ali brothers, Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.

Q.3. State any two provisions of the Rowlatt Act passed by the Government in 1919.

Ans. Rowalatt Act:-

  1. Arrest of a person without warrant.
  2. In camera trial (trial in seclusion).
  3. Restrictions on movements of individuals.
  4. Suspension of the Right of Habeas Corpus/(No dalil No vakil No appeal).

Q.4. Name two leaders of the Swaraj Party. Why were they said to be Pro-changers?

Ans. PT. Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das were two leaders of the Swaraj Party and they were called Pro-changers because they desired to achieve Swaraj within the British Empire. They also urged the people to enter the Legislative Councils.

Q.5. Why did Mahatma Gandhi started the historic march to Dandi?

Ans. Reasons behind the starting of the historic march to Dandi are as follows:-

  1. The government did not reply to Gandhi's 11 point ultimatum.
  2. He selected to attach the salt law because the salt tax affected the all sections of the society especially the poor.
  3. By breaking the salt law it marked the beginning of the civil disobedience movement.

Q.6. Why was the congress session held at Lahore at 1929 significant to the national movement?

Ans. It declare 'purna Swaraj' or complete independence as its goal and took steps to launch a programmed of civil disobedient.

Q.7. Why was the Simon commission boycotted by the Indians?

Ans. It was boycotted because there was not Indian representative in the Simon commission.

Q.8.  When and by whom was the civil disobedience movement launched?

Ans. Civil disobedience movement was launched by Mhatma Gandhi on 17th march, 1930.

Q.9. State any two causes that led to the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.

Ans. Simon Commission, Declaration of Poorna swaraj at Lahore session (1929), Nehru report, viceroy declaration. Gandhi's eleven demands, salt Sataygrah.

Q.10. Why was the civil disobedience Movement of march 1930 withdrawn?

Ans. The civil disobedience movement was withdrawn after the Gandhi Irwin impact.