ICSE-X Geography

chapter 2:- soil resources


Q1. Give two points of difference between black and Alluvial soil?


Alluvial soil Black soil
Transported soil/ Ex situ. Residual soil/ In situ.
Less moisture retention/ Pours. More moisture retention.
Lighter in color. Dark in color.
Texture varies. Clayey/ fine grain.


Q2. Explain the formation of laterite soil. Why is laterite soil not suitable for cultivation?

Ans. Laterite soil is formed in situ as a result of leaching under difficult monsoonal conditions with high temperature and heavy rainfall with the alternating wet and dry spells.

This soil is not suitable for cultivation because it is highly acidic in nature and is not moisture-retentive. 


Q3. Why does a Alluvial soil differ in texture?

Ans.  The alluvial soil of the northern plain is formed due to the deposition of alluvium which is brought from the Himalayan region; the load that the river carries, breaks into smaller and smaller pieces.  The river moves towards the sea, so the texture varies.


Q4.  state two cash crops that grow well in Alluvial soil?

Ans.  sugarcane and jute.


Q5.   Name one important crop which grows in black soil?

Ans.  Cotton.


Q6.  give one chemical property of black soil?

Ans.  black soil in India is rich in minerals such as iron magnesium and alluvium because these are made up of Volcanic rocks and Lava flow rocks.


Q7.  How is black soil formed?

Ans.  black soil is formed by the weathering of igneous rocks.


Q8. Name the characteristics of black soil?

Ans.  black soil characteristics are:- 

  1. It is moisture retentive.
  2. Self blogging.
  3. Rich in lime, iron, calcium, Aluminum, potash.
  4. Deep and  fine grained clayey in texture.


Q9. Characteristics of red soil?

Ans. Characteristics of red soil are:-

  1. It is porous and friable and of course it does not retain moisture.
  2. Rich in Iron and potash
  3. Deficient in lime nitrogen Phosphorus in humus 
  4. Response to manure fertilizer.
  5. It is red in color due to the presence of iron oxide.


Q10. mention two characteristics of laterite soil?

Ans.  characteristics of laterite soil are:-

  1. Laterite soil is highly acidic in nature.
  2. It is leached soil and is infertile rich in Iron and poor in silica, lime, nitrogen and humus.
  3. It is porous and coarse in texture.