Chapter 3:- First Phase of the Indian National Movement (ICSE)

Q.1. Mention any two objectives of the Early Nationalists.
Ans. Two objectives of the Early Nationalists:-
  1. Expansion of Legislative Councils, direct election to the Council and separation between the executive and the judiciary.
  2. Protection to Indian industries and welfare of the Indians.
O.2. Mention two reasons for the Moderates faith in the British sense of justice.
Ans. Two reasons for faith of the Moderates in the British sense of justice were as follows:
  1. The Moderates were of the opinion that the English men thought about the progress of India and proceed it onto the path of democracy and self-governance.
  2. The Moderates thought that the English rule had conferred benefits upon them; especially.  The English language and the modern means of communication and transport.
Q.3. Mention two achievements of the Early Nationalists.
Ans. The two achievements of the Moderates were as follows:
  1. They trained people in politics by popularizing the ideas of Democracy, Civil Liberties, Secularism and Nationalism.
  2. They created National awakening among the people that they belonged to one great country. This made the Indians conscious of the bonds of common political, economic and cultural interest that united them.
Q.4. State the reasons why the Early Congressmen were called moderates.
Ans. There are three reasons for the Early Congressmen to be called as moderates:-
  1. They adopted the method of constitutional agitation within the ambit of law.
  2. They had faith in British rule and they believed that the political agenda of the Britishers was in favour and interest of India. They did not want to oust the British from India but instead, they wanted to transform their rule to an approximation of National Rule.
  3. They asserted that public opinion should be created, organised and projected to the colonial government by methods of petition, holding public meetings, making speeches and through passing of resolutions. They waited for the Britishers to pay attention to their demands.
Q.5. With reference to the growth of Nationalism: Mention two Associations which served as the forerunners (precursors) of the Indian National Congress. Who were the founders of the two Associations?
Ans. Two Associations which served as forerunners of the Indian National Congress were- The Indian Association headed by Surendranath Banerjee and the Bengal British India society founded by George Thompson.
Q.6. With reterence to the growth of Nationalism Ditferentiate between the methods adopted by the Early Nationalists and the Radical Nationalist?
Ans. The ditterences between the methods adopted by the Early Nationalists and the Radical Nationalists were as below:
  1. The Early Nationalists had faith in gradual reforms, whereas the Radical Nationalists believed that the Swaraj is their birth right
  2. The Early Nationalists believed in the theory of mendicancy, but the Radical Nationalists were against it.
  3. The Early Nationalists were against an all out struggle against the British, but the Radical Nationalists wanted to mobilise the whole country against the British rule.
  4. The Early Nationalists believed that the British could be persuaded to see the justness of their demands, but the Radical Nationalists, on the other hand, were of the view that the demands could be realised only by putting pressure on the British Government.
  5. The Early Nationalist leaders were sent to jails, but the Radical Nationalists were beaten handcuffed and sent to jail tor several times.
Q.7. Mention contributions of Dadabhai Naoroji?
Ans. Contributions of Dadabhai Naoroji are as follows:- 
  1. Dadabhai Naoroji founded the East India Association in London to inform the British about the true state of affairs in India.
  2. As the member of the British Parliament, he rendered admirable Service to the cause of India and to the people or Indian origin in South Africa.
  3. It was due to his efforts that a resolution recommending the ICS examinations to be held simultaneously in England and India was passed.
  4. He was one of the founder members of the Congress. He passed the resolutions on Swaraj, Swadeshi, Boycott and National Education. He condemned the Partition of Bengal.
  5. He edited Rast-goftar and started a magazine Dharma Marg Darshak and wrote about poverty and un-British rule in India.
  6. Through his 'Drain Theory, he explained how India's wealth was being taken away to England. He advocated a just political system.

Q.8.  Name the Natinalist who said Swaraj is my birth right . Mention one of his contributions to the National Movement.

Ans. Bal Gangadhar Tilak said Swaraj is my birth right. one contribution of Tilak is demand of swaraj (self governance) as early as in 1906.

Q.9. Name the moderate leader who explained the economic 'drain theory' during the colonial times?

Ans. Dadabhai Naroji explained the economic 'drain theory' during the colonial times.

Q.10. Mention 2 acts which Surendrenath Banerjee protested.

Ans. Surendrenath Banerjee protested the following  Acts:- 

  1. Government of India act 1919.
  2. Reduction in age limit of ISC examination.