Chapter 4:- Second Phase of the Indian National Movement (ICSE)

Q.1. Who is regarded as the political Guru of Mahatma Gandhi? Give a reason for him being considered as the Mahatma's Guru.
Ans. Gopal Krishna Gokhale is regarded as the political Guru of Mahatma Gandhi because he went to South Africa where he helped Gandhi in his fight
against Racial discrimination.

Q.2. Mention two important contributions of Lala Lajpat Rai.
Ans. Contributions of Lala Lajpat Rai:-
1. He started a monthly magazine Young India to spread the message ot the right of India to attain Swaraj.
2. He wrote a book on National Education as he wanted to reform the existing Education system.
3. He was associated with the Arya Samaj Movement.
4. He helped in the expansion of D.A.V. College at Lahore.
5. He set up the 'Servants of the People Society for the welfare of the downtrodden and outcastes.
6. He opened orphanages, hospitals and schools.
7. He went abroad to mobilise opinion in favour of India's Struggle for Freedom.
8. He joined the Ghadar Party in America.
9. He founded Punjabi', 'Vande Mataram (Urdu daily) and 'People (English weekly).

Q.3. What were the two basic reasons responsible for the Surat Split in 1907 between the Early Nationalists and the Assertive Nationalists?
Ans. The two basic reasons for the Surat Split in 1907 were:-

  1. The Early Nationalists did not want to extend the Swadeshi and the Boycott Movement to the rest of India but confine it only in Bengal. The Assertive Nationalists wanted to extend the Boycott and Swadeshi Movement and make it a full fledged mass struggle to achieve Swaraj.
  2. There was a disagreement over who would be the next President of the Congress the Early Nationalists proposed the name of Rash Behari Ghosh and the Assertive Nationalists proposed the name of Lala Lajpat Rai.

Q.4. With reference to the growth of National consciousness in India, explain the impact of the Swadeshi and Boycott Movement?
Ans. All the Indians took vow of Swadeshi. Rabindranat Tagore wrote his famous Patriotic Song 'Amar Sonar Bangla' ,  'Vande Mataram' was adopted as the war cry of the agitation. Amrit Bazar Patrika vehemently criticized the partition. Bengal papers like Sanjeevani and Hitaishi took lead in spreading anti-British feelings. It brought into politics, new classes of the people and encouraged indigenous industries that provided employment to craftsmen gave education a national orientation in vernacular needs, Taught the Press to be outspoken.

Q.5. How did the Moderates differ from the Assertive Nationalists in realizing their objectives?
Ans. Differences between the moderates and assertive nationalists were as follows:-

  1. Moderates wanted to achieve self-governance and restore to autonomy within the empire and not for absolute independence, whereas the assertive nationalists aimed at nothing short of Swaraj.
  2. In terms of the basic beliefs, the moderates looked to England for inspiration and guidance. They had an unlimited faith in the British benevolence, whereas aggressive nationalists had no faith in the goodness of the British or in their assurance to the Indians Moderates had faith in the British sense.

Q.6. Why was the signing of the Lucknow Pact an important event towards the growth of unity in India?
Ans. The Lucknow Pact brought about unity between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League.

Q.7. Give the name of two leaders who lead the Home Rule Movement in India.
Ans. Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Annie Besant led the Home Rule Movement in India.

Q.8. With reference to the Lucknow Pact of 1916, answer the following:
What were the terms of the Lucknow Pact?
Ans. Terms of the Lucknow Pact :-

  1. Independent Unit : India was to be treated as an independent unit of the Empire in the form of  a self autonomous state with equal rights and responsibility.
    Provincial Legislatures: Four-fifth of the members of the Provincial Legislatures were to be elected and one-fifth to be nominated. One-third of the elected members were to be from Muslim community.
  2. Powers of the Imperial Legislative Council: Defense, foreign affairs and political relations of India, i.e. waging of war, peace and signing of treaties were to be expected from the control of the Imperial Legislature.
  3. Bills related to Religion Interests : No bill could be introduced in the Legislative Council if it influenced the interests of any community and such a bill could not be passed if it was opposed by three-fourth of that community.
  4. Composition of the Viceroy's Executive Council : Half of the members of the Viceroy's Executive Council were to be Indians elected by the elected members of the Imperial Legislative Council.
  5. Separation of Judiciary from Executive : Judiciary should be separated from Executive. Members of the judiciary in each Province should be placed under the control of the highest court of that Province.

Q.9. Name the leaders of the Khilafat Movement that was launched in India to campaign the cause of the Caliph of Turkey.
Ans. Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali were the Muslim leaders of the Khilafat Movement who started the Khilafat Movement so as to restore the power and position on the Caliph of Turkey. Gandhiji started the Non-Cooperation Movement while joining these two.

Q.10. Why was the Simon Commission boycotted by the Indians ?
Ans. There were no Indians in the Simon Commission which came to India to evaluate the working of the Act of 1919. This was vigorously resented by the Indians and they protested against the Simon Commission.