0.1. Give two factors that gave rise to Nationalism in India in the 19th century.
Ans. Following were two factors that gave rise to Nationalism in India in the 19th century:-
- British Imperialism: The British Imperialism the most important factor, which contributed to the rise of Nationalism in India. It made the geographical unification of the country possible. Before the advent of the British, the people of the south were usually separate from the rest of India, except for some short intervals. The British Imperialism made the people to think about India as one nation.
- Influence of the Western Civilization: The establishment of British rule in India made closer relations with the Western world possible. Thus, the contacts with the European countries influenced the Indians immensely. The nineteenth century in Europe was the century of Nationalism and Liberalism. The Indians came to learn their lessons from the Europeans on both these ideologies.
Q.2. Mention any two economic factors responsible for the growth of Nationalism in India.
Ans. Economic Exploitation: -
- Peasants: The Government took away a large part of their produce.
- British economic policies were against the interests of Indian trade and industry.
- Working class was exploited by the factory owners.
- Educated Indians were denied promotion and employment.
- Did nothing to promote the welfare of the people.
- Heavy duties on Indian Goods.
- India was reduced to an agricultural glory of the British.
Q.3. Mention any two repressive colonial policies of Lord Lytton.
Ans. Two repressive colonial policies of Lord Lytton: The Vernacular Press Act was enacted in the year 1878 to seize the freedom of the Indian Press
In the same year, the Arms Act was passed. This Act put a check on keeping arms by the Indians without appropriate license.
Q4. Mention any two contributions of Jyotiba Phule in preparing ground for the National Movement.
Ans. Contributions of Jyotiba Phule:
- Upliftment of lower castes.
- Advocated education for the dalits to end their misery
- Founded schools for girls and lower castes.
- Set up an Orphanage in 1854 to provide shelter to poor widows and their children.
- Founded the Satyashodhak Samaj to mitigate the distress and sufferings of women, Dalits and common people.
- Conceived a society based on the principles of justice, equality and fraternity.
- Got water tank constructed outside his house for the use of dalits.
- Wrote Ghulamgir', which focused on the domination of the upper caste and the plight.
Q.5. What was the role of the Press in promoting nationalistic sentiments amongst the Indians?
Ans. The Press played an important role as it: -
- Spread the message of patriotism and modern liberal ideas of Liberty, Freedom and Equality among the people
- Criticized the British Government for their unjust policies, on a regular basis and exposed the real nature of the British rule in India.
- Made exchange of views possible among different social groups from different parts of the country and in organizing political movements.
- Made the Indians aware of what was happening in the world and it helped them
- to shape their own policies and programmes.
Q.6. What was the influence of Western Education in the minds of the Educated Indians in the 19th Century?
Ans. The influence of Western Education were as follows: Through the study of European history, political thoughts and economic ideas, educated Indians had an access to the ideas of Liberty, Nationality, Equality, rules of law and self-government.
Q.7. State any two repressive policies of Lord Curzon.
Ans. Two repressive policies of Lord Curzon included the Indian Universities Act of 1904 and the Seditions Act and the Official Secrets Act, which curtailed the liberty of the entire Indian society.
Q.8. There were various factors that promoted the growth of Nationalism in India in the 19th century, In this context, give the meaning of 'Nationalism'.
Ans. Nationalism was not a successful political force of the 19th century. Nationalism was a feeling of oneness which the people feel about their nation. It was the result of a new social and economic force, which had put an end to Feudalism.
Q.9. Mention any two factors that helped in the growth of Nationalism.
Ans. The two important factors that were responsible for the growth of Nationalism in India are as follows:
- Impact of Western Education
- Development of rapid means of transport and communication.
Q.10. Mention two Acts against which Surendra Nath protested.
Ans. Surendra Nath Banerjee protested against the
- Indian Arms Act
- The Vernacular Press Act.
Q.12. State two factors responsible for the growth of Nationalism in India.
Ans. Two important factors responsible for the growth of Nationalism in India are as follows:
- Repressive Colonial Policies of the British Empire.
- Socio-religious movements in India in the 19th century.
Q.13. Mention any two social reforms suggested to the British by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
Ans. The two social reforms suggested to the British by Raja Ram Mohan Roy were:
- Abolition of Sati system
- Widow remarriage
Q.14. Mention two contributions of Dadabhai Naoroji to the National Movement.
Ans. Two contributions of Dadabhai Naoroji to the National Movement:
- He exposed the real imperialistic motive of the Britishers in India through his theory of 'Drain of Wealth'.
- To avoid split in the Congress, he advocated for adoption of the Policy of Swaraj.
Q.15. How did the English language play a leading role in growth of Nationalism in India?
Ans. The English language spread all over India, which provided the educated Indians a common language in which they could communicate with each other. In the absence of such a common language, it would have been difficult to communicate on a common platform and to organize a movement.